简单的携号转网被百般阻挠背后的利益逻辑? 狂言疯语拷问运营商携号转网到底有多难–by豪迈(horror)

前段时间讨论完关于微信收费问题,接下来讨论用户在保留原手机号码情况下更换传统运营商的途径——携号转网。

携号转网:也称作号码可携带、移机不改号,就是一家移动电信运营商的用户,无需改变自己的手机号码,就能转而成为另一家运营商的用户,并享受其提供的各种服务。例如,持有139号码的手机用户,,转入中国电信网,享受中国电信提供的电信运营服务。携号转网主要包括固定号码携带和移动号码携带两种。号码携带有助于复制新运营商,促进新运营商快速进入市场(来自百度百科)。

这早已经不是一个新鲜的名词了。从根本上讲,就是允许用户为了保持联系,在不更换号码的前提下,根据套餐、业务的差异,切换实际提供服务的运营商。就好比,身份证号不变的前提下,户口的省际迁移,或者不更换域名的情况下,网站主机、空间、甚至IP地址的变迁。

携号转网,无论是对国家、个人以及运营商都是有利的。

1、对国家,节约了号码资源,降低了号码、频谱等资源的监管和维护。(当然了,对于以号码资源审批、分配等来牟利的部门来说,就不是好事了)

2、对个人,不用因为上学、工作地变更、上网套餐、校园套餐、充话费送手机等多种原因,而先后使用多个运营商的多个号码。(当然了,对于随意更换号码用于诈骗、骚扰,甚至刷榜刷信誉等的用户来说,可有可无。甚至对于想隐姓埋名的人来说,宁愿别人找不到他)

3、对于运营商来说,增加用户流通,可以尽可能的突出差异化服务,避免同质化竞争,有利于忠实用户的积累,提升用户体验。

下面再说为什么提携号转网?

对于用户来说,随着世界越来越小,与外界的接触范围越来越广,一个人的交际范围不像过去,终生足不出村。因此,无论是身在异乡求学,或是到崭新的天地去闯荡,无论是同学、同事、亲人,手机号都是很好的连接的纽带。一旦因为更换号码,往往会丢失很多联系人,相信很多人都有相同的经历。同时,也会有很多上学时为了电话短信便宜而使用动感地带,工作成家后需要上网优惠,无奈只能更换号码。

如果每个人因为迁移户口,就需要更换身份证号的话,相信已经天下大乱了。

针对携号转网,国家先后出台了一些政策和法规,相关部门也做了推动和指导。并分为了两步,一是运营商内部的携号转品牌、转套餐, “2006年10月,原信息产业部发布了630号文件《信息产业部关于保障移动电话用户资费方案选择权的通知》,该文件又被业界称为“携号转套餐”或“携号转品牌”政策。”;二是携号转运营商,“自2009年开始,在工业和信息化部(原信息产业部)的规划指导下,我国在天津、海南两地开始筹备实施携号转网试点,准备已久的携号转网工作已有大的突破。”

对于携号转网的实施,目前存在以下难点:

1、时机的选择:

国外实施携号转网政策的前提是移动电话普及率普遍都达到60%以上,而我国“据2011年1月26日工信部公布的数据,2010年全国移动电话用户净增1.12亿户,全国移动电话用户总数达到8.59亿,普及率达到64.4部/百人,比上年年底提高8.1个百分点,是固定电话普及率的3倍左右。”

可以说这一点已经自然解决了

2、技术实现难度:

这一点是我要具体论述的。在文章开篇,我提到了迁移户口身份证号不变以及搬迁网站空间、更换主机、IP地址等域名不变两个例子。这里我以网站域名来和手机号码对比。

域名好比逻辑地址,主机IP为物理地址,那么在主机IP变化时是如何实现用户对网站的访问?这是通过域名解析,将域名有原来的指向修改到新的主机IP地址。

同样,对于手机来说,我的朋友又是如何实现对我的呼叫的呢?

首先是我的朋友播出我的号码,有其所在运营商基站,受理,并解析我的运营商,有我的运营商去完成接下来的请求。这就可以类比为,手机号码为逻辑地址,SIM卡的pin为物理地址,是用户不需要知道的。

另外,请大家想一下,手机卡丢失、折断,运营商是如何处理的?其实就是将原手机号码和新卡物理PIN识别码匹配。

下面用一个简单的图来描述一下手机呼叫过程:

 

从图中看出,关键在于标记1的红色部分,无论是主叫方是哪个运营商,都必须根据被叫号码去寻址,找到该被叫号码所属的运营商,由被叫方所属运营商利用自己的基站去联系被叫方,由主叫运营商和被叫运营商共同完成一次呼叫和通话。

所以通俗的讲,实现携号转网只需要两个过程:

一、将被叫号码从原来运营商的服务数据库中移出,转到另一运营商服务数据库中,实现号码所属运营商的变更。

二、由用户到原运营商取出号码,到另一运营商办理号码遗失,补卡操作,将号码和新的sim物理识别码匹配。

涉及到的无非是连个数据库的操作,从移动中删除号码和物理识别码匹配,到电信加入号码和物理识别码匹配。

因此,对于技术来说也不存在任何问题。

3、业务逻辑

在业务上,由于涉及到的业务切换,因此在原运营商处存在业务终止,结算套餐费用,并且要开具号码携带迁出授权或者许可。

在受理新运营商处,出具原运营商开具的号码携带迁出授权或者许可即可办理入网。

好像也没有什么难度吧?

 

4、运营商态度

其实这一点,才是本文要讨论的重点所在。技术、法规等等都不是问题,问题就在于利益集团的纠葛。无论是号码资源审批、管理,频谱资源分配,甚至是政策保护,都是少部分集团利益在束缚着真正的市场开放竞争。

最典型的没运营商态度。某运营商领导(具体的不点名了)说各家服务都差不多,突出差异化,因此(携号转网)需求不大。好臭呀,我可以说脏话吗?正是因为差异化,有想上网的,有想用苹果的才会有人要转网。比如本人前后换过四个号码,一次因为参加TD_SCDMA试用(同运营商),一次因为校园套餐话费便宜(切换运营商),一次参加预存话费送手机活动。

相信和我一样的人不在少数。尤其是在个运营商差异化的情况下,用户的生活和工作环境变化,对移动业务存在不同需求时,尤为明显。

另外更明显的就是微信收费争论的热潮中,如果真的因为2G和2.5G,无法承载微信、视频等OTT业务的信令占用情况,相信会有很多人为了使用稳定的移动数据业务,携带号码转到联通电信的名下,享受更好的数据业务体验过。也就不用因为使用微信还要担心收费,或者遭到干扰通话短信等的良心道德煎熬。

另外虚拟运营商的进入,也是一个很好的契机,能够帮助或者刺激原有运营商注重用户体验,带给客户优质服务。

 

2013年4月3日17:28by豪迈(horror) 一稿

2013年4月14日16:40by豪迈(horror) 二稿

61 thoughts on “简单的携号转网被百般阻挠背后的利益逻辑? 狂言疯语拷问运营商携号转网到底有多难–by豪迈(horror)

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